Treatment of disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis

by B. K. V. Menon

Publisher: University of Birmingham in Birmingham

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 578
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Thesis (M.D.) - University of Birmingham, Dept of Clinical Endocrinology and Dept of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 1984.

KEY WORDS: Electroacupuncture, ß-Endorphin, GnRH, LH, Estradiol, Estrogen receptor, Ovariectomized rat, Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis INTRODUCTON Acupuncture is a treasure of Chinese traditional medicine, which is employed in the treatment of different diseases, especially in relief of all kinds of pain [1, 2] over the world. Amenorrhea is the absence or abnormal cessation of menstrual cycles in a woman of reproductive age. Prolonged cessation of menstrual cycles might results in complications such as infertility, psychosocial developmental delays, Osteoporosis, fractures etc. Better understanding of physiology of menstruation is essential to understand the various causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea. Any. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis refers to the complexinteractions between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries that regulate the reproductive cycle. These interactions arebased on the interplay of the hormones released by these structures: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH. Immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis What is immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis? In the years that follow the first period, many adolescent girls experience irregular periods. Sometimes this comes in the form of missed or very light periods, while others may experience heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB).

  John M. Grohol, Psy.D. Dr. John Grohol is the founder and Editor-in-Chief of Psych Central. He is an author, researcher, and expert in mental health . Part of the ISGE Series book series (ISGE) Abstract This chapter presents a focused, comprehensive, and rational framework for cataloging, considering, and assessing normal female reproductive function, developmental changes, abnormalities, and downstream effects of . Compartment IV disorders include CNS disorders, in particular hypothalamic disorders. In some of the congenital syndromes that cause primary amenorrhea, the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is dysfunctional. The hypothalamus is unable to synthesize GnRH, so the pituitary fails to . The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in mood disorders Elizabeth A. Young, MD, PhDa,*, Ania Korszun, MD, PhDb aDepartment of Psychiatry and MHRI, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA bDepartment of Psychological Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK Depression is known to be accompanied by abnormalities in the hypo-.

KEY CONCEPTS. While a urine pregnancy test should be one of the first steps in evaluating amenorrhea, the majority of primary amenorrhea case can be attributed to either physical anomalies of the gonads, outflow tract or anomalies of the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis. Start studying ATI OB Book Ch 2 Infertility. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis: Prolactin, FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, thyroid hormones. Clients with disorders like sickle cell trait or disease or client older than Often recommend POC be.   Arana et al. conducted a number of trials using DEX for the treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. In one of the studies 37 patients were treated for a 2 week period with DEX treatment showing superiority to placebo in reducing depressive symptoms []. DEX has also been studied for the treatment of anxiety disorders including PTSD. Treatment plans are developed using information gathered with the Kennedy Axis V, an instrument that has proven more successful than both the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in establishing baselines and determining outcome s: 1.

Treatment of disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis by B. K. V. Menon Download PDF EPUB FB2

The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO).Cited by: 5.

The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction. HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three.

Acupuncture Normalizes Dysfunction of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Article (PDF Available) in Acupuncture & electro-therapeutics research 22(2) February with Reads. INTRODUCTION. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland form a unit that exerts control over a wide range of endocrine organs, including the gonads.

This chapter describes the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and control of the menstrual cycle, which is modulated by the central nervous system, other endocrine systems, and the environment. Disorders of hypothalamic control of metabolic as well as reproductive hormones can influence the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis.

For example, reproductive dysfunction may be associated with thyroid deficiency or excess, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) excess (Cushing’s syndrome) or growth hormone excess (acromegaly). 6 Disorders of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary- Ovarian Axis DAVID T. BAIRD IAN S. FRASER Most disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (H.P.O.) present clinically as disorders of menstrual function and/or infertility and are classified accordingly on the basis of their dominant presenting symptoms, e.g.

primary or secondary amenorrhoea. Introduction. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis plays an important role in female estrous cycle and reproduction (Harris and Santoro, ; Clarke, ).The hypothalamus exhibits pulsatile release of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the pituitary, which lead to a similar releasing pattern of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to peripheral.

This review focuses on the role of the ovaries in the pathogenesis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome.

In particular, the failure of follicular development, hypothalamo-pituitary dysregulation, alterations in adrenal steroid output and derangement of intermediary metabolism are discussed in Treatment of disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis book context of the ovaries.

In addition, many girls with these disorders require chronic maintenance treatment with agents that may perturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

Valproate is a highly effective antiepileptic drug used widely to treat epilepsy, bipolar disorder, and migraines. Group II ovulation disorders are defined as dysfunctions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. This category includes conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea.

Around 85% of women with ovulation disorders have a group II ovulation disorder. In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function in bipolar disorder has been reviewed, but lithium was mentioned only in passing [].Two studies (n = 25, n = 24), possibly reporting many of the same patients, showed that lithium augmentation of antidepressant-resistant unipolar depression.

Introduction. In order to understand the multifactorial and polygenic pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is important to consider both the nature of the dysfunction within the ovary and the external influences modifying ovarian behaviour, including hypothalamic–pituitary and adrenal contributions.

INTRODUCTION: Menstruation is the end point in a series of event which begin in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-uterine axis, any break in this creates menstrual problems.(1) Any uterine bleeding outside the normal volume, duration, regularity or frequency is considered AUB.

(2) Abnormal menstruation can be harbinger of a. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) is a disorder associated with functional inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis due to deficiency of pulsatile GnRH. The incidence of FHA ranges from 15 to 48% of all secondary amenorrheas.

Ursula B. Kaiser, in The Pituitary (Fourth Edition), Hypothalamic Amenorrhea. HA is a reversible disorder in which no anatomic or organic abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis can be identified [,].It is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea, responsible for approximately 35% of cases.

HA is associated mainly with conditions of stress or energy deficits. The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis is a tightly regulated system controlling female reproduction.

HPO axis dysfunction leading to ovulation disorders can be classified into three categories defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Group I ovulation disorders involve hypothalamic failure characterized as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) refers to the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonadal glands as if these individual endocrine glands were a single entity. Because these glands often act in concert, physiologists and endocrinologists find it convenient and descriptive to speak of them as a single system.

The HPG axis plays a critical part in the development and. Hypogonadism in females is due to disruption of any section of the hypothalamic –pituitary–ovarian axis pathway (figure 1). In a correctly functioning hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis pathway: The hypothalamus produces gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the onset of puberty.

Specifically, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis directly affects the functions of the thyroid gland, the adrenal gland, and the gonads, as well as influencing growth, milk production, and water balance. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis will be reviewed here.

Diminished function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis may cause a multitude of complications, including diminished reproductive potential, reduced bone strength, metabolic disorders, and altered mental health (Meczekalski et al., ).

In terms of reproductive health. Treatment. Treatment must address the common features of PCOS: menstrual dysfunction, infertility, acne and hirsutism, metabolic disorder, and mental health disturbances.

The reproductive, dermatologic, and metabolic aspects of the syndrome should be managed by a primary care provider or relevant specialist. 1. Context. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrinopathy in females (), characterized by chronic oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism (HA), and polycystic ovaries (), all of which can result in worsening of quality of life for these patients (3, 4).Precise prevalence of PCOS in adolescents is unknown, yet a recent study of females, aged 15 to 19 years old estimated it to be 1.

The release of a mature egg from the ovary is controlled by anterior hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries (the hypothalamic-pituitaryovarian axis) (Gleicher, Kushnir, & Barad, ;Smith. It is the result of large fluid and electrolyte shifts that occur as the body moves from using carbohydrates to using fats and proteins as primary energy sources.

Women with AN have lower fertility rates because of the effects of starvation on the hypothalamic‐ pituitary‐ovarian axis. Characteristic changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis during the menopause transition result from decreased ovarian feedback of inhibin and estradiol and are manifested primarily as elevations in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Although central mechanisms may contribute to reproductive aging, they are less well characterized. Alteration in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis in Depressed Women.

Arch Gen Psychiatry. ;57(12)– doi Mood Disorders program who were seeking treatment for new episodes of depression. All controls met SCID criteria for never having a mental illness and had no first degree relatives with an Axis I or II. This chapter provides an overview of the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis, otherwise known as the female reproductive axis.

The HPO axis is the major regulator of the female. Potential adverse effects on reproductive function in the female may be mediated through effects at one or more levels of the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis (Wallace et al., a), or at the uterus (Critchley et al., ; Bath et al., ).

One of the most commonly recognized adverse effects of anti-cancer treatments is on the ovary. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity and its relationship to the autonomic nervous system in women with visceral and subcutaneous obesity: effects of the corticotropin-releasing factor/arginine-vasopressin test and of stress.

Metabol – Axis Dysfunction There are a large number of studies that assess basal cortisol levels in CFS and FM patients as a primary focus or as part of a subsequent stimulation test.

These are of limited value as they fail to assess the function of the HPA axis during stress and lack sensitivity in detecting central HPA axis. The menstrual cycle is a reproductive vital sign and provides insight into hormonal imbalance as well as pregnancy.

The significance of estrogen, however, extends beyond fertility and plays a role on tissues and organs throughout the body.

Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a common form of secon. Combination OCs suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, thereby inhibiting ovulation and preventing prostaglandin production.

Although not approved by the FDA for treating dysmenorrhea, the following OCs are also used: 1-Combination OCs (eg, ethinyl estradiol with progestin or drospirenone).

2-Levonorgestrel intrauterine device. 3.Gonadal dysfunction (i.e. disorders of sexual development) in foetal life is depicted by the blue line while incomplete activation of the hypothalamicpituitary-gonadal axis is shown in red (i.e.